User Datagram Protocol

O User Datagram Protocol (UDP) é definido para tornar disponível um modo de comutação de pacotes em um ambiente composto por um conjunto de computadores interconectados por redes. Esse protocolo assume que o Internet Protocol (IP) [1] é utilizado como alicerce das suas comunicações. Esse protocolo provê um procedimento para os programas aplicativos enviarem mensagens para outros programas com o mínimo de mecanismos possíveis. O protocolo é orientado a transação, e a entrega e a proteção duplicada não são garantidas. As aplicações necessitam ordenar o fluxo de dados e realizar o controle de entrega, função não desempenhado pelo UDP [2].


Format
------
0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Source Destination
Port Port
+--------+--------+--------+--------+

Length Checksum
+--------+--------+--------+--------+

data octets ...
+---------------- ...
User Datagram Header Format
Fields
------
Source Port is an optional field, when meaningful, it indicates the port
of the sending process, and may be assumed to be the port to which a
reply should be addressed in the absence of any other information. If
not used, a value of zero is inserted.
Postel [page 1]
28 Aug 1980
User Datagram Protocol RFC 768
Fields
Destination Port has a meaning within the context of a particular
internet destination address.
Length is the length in octets of this user datagram including this
header and the data. (This means the minimum value of the length is
eight.)
Checksum is the 16-bit one’s complement of the one’s complement sum of a
pseudo header of information from the IP header, the UDP header, and the
data, padded with zero octets at the end (if necessary) to make a
multiple of two octets.
The pseudo header conceptually prefixed to the UDP header contains the
source address, the destination address, the protocol, and the UDP
length. This information gives protection against misrouted datagrams.
This checksum procedure is the same as is used in TCP.
0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
source address
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
destination address
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
zero protocol UDP length
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
If the computed checksum is zero, it is transmitted as all ones (the
equivalent in one’s complement arithmetic). An all zero transmitted
checksum value means that the transmitter generated no checksum (for
debugging or for higher level protocols that don’t care).
User Interface
--------------
A user interface should allow
the creation of new receive ports,
receive operations on the receive ports that return the data octets
and an indication of source port and source address,
and an operation that allows a datagram to be sent, specifying the
data, source and destination ports and addresses to be sent.
[page 2] Postel
28 Aug 1980
RFC 768 User Datagram Protocol
IP Interface
IP Interface
-------------
The UDP module must be able to determine the source and destination
internet addresses and the protocol field from the internet header. One
possible UDP/IP interface would return the whole internet datagram
including all of the internet header in response to a receive operation.
Such an interface would also allow the UDP to pass a full internet
datagram complete with header to the IP to send. The IP would verify
certain fields for consistency and compute the internet header checksum.
Protocol Application
--------------------
The major uses of this protocol is the Internet Name Server [3], and the
Trivial File Transfer [4].
Protocol Number
---------------
This is protocol 17 (21 octal) when used in the Internet Protocol.
Other protocol numbers are listed in [5].
References
----------
[1] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol," RFC 760, USC/Information
Sciences Institute, January 1980.
[2] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol," RFC 761,
USC/Information Sciences Institute, January 1980.
[3] Postel, J., "Internet Name Server," USC/Information Sciences
Institute, IEN 116, August 1979.
[4] Sollins, K., "The TFTP Protocol," Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, IEN 133, January 1980.
[5] Postel, J., "Assigned Numbers," USC/Information Sciences
Institute, RFC 762, January 1980.
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